Intact earthworm communities are essential for optimal soil fertility. Due to natural variances of the soil factors texture, organic matter, moisture and pH value, the distribution of earthworms is irregular across the agricultural landscape. In addition, tillage, fertilization, crop protection and crop rotation can have negative influences on earthworms. The aim of the project is the development of a monitoring concept on the effects of cultivation measures on the diversity and function of earthworm communities as basis for a national cost-effective and personnel-saving monitoring. On this basis, long-term trends in biodiversity of earthworm communities in Germany's typical agricultural areas can be derived.